On the identification of Gelso Iulius and his portrait typology (“Adolphseck-Malibu” type), I agree essentially with Klaus Fittschen (1987) 215-17
Kersauson, K. de. Catalogue des portraits suggerimenti livelinks romains I: Portraits de la Republique et d’epoque Julio-Claudienne (Musee du Louvre) (Paris 1986).
Pekary, T. Das romische Kaiserbildnis durante Staat, Kult und Gesellschaft dargestellt anhand der Schriftquellen (Das romische Herrscherbild 3) (Berlin 1985).
Pollini, J. “Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation per the Late Republic and Early Principate,” sopra Between Republic and Commuovere: Interpretations of Augustus and His Principate, edd. K.Verso. Raaflaub and M. Toher (Berkeley 1990) 333-63.
Pollini, J. “The Gioiello Augustea: Ideology, Rhetorical Imagery, and the Creation of per Dynastic Nararive, sopra Narrative and Event sopra Ancient Art (Cambridge 1993), anche. P.J. Holliday (Cambridge 1993) 258-98.
Pollini, J. From Republic onesto Colmare: Rhetoric, Religion, and Power mediante the Visual Culture of Ancient Rome (Norman, Okla. 2012).
Richter, G.M.Verso. The Portraits of the Greeks I (Ithaca 1965) 109-119; The Portraits of the Greeks (abridged and revised by R.R.R. Smith) (Oxford 1984) 198-204.
Sargent, M.L. and R.H. Therkildsen, “The Technical Investigation of Sculptural Polychromy at the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek 2009-2010 – An Outline’,” in J.S. Ostergaard, anche., Tracking Colour. The polychromy of Greek and Roman Sculpture durante the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Preliminary Report 2 (Copenhagen 2010); also online:
See Chapter VIII, “The ‘Insanity’ of Caligula or the ‘Insanity’ of the Jews? Differences con Perception and Religious Beliefs,” mediante Pollini (2012) 369-411. For the confusion between worshiping the Genius or Numen of the living Princeps (emperor) and worshiping the living person, see also in this same sistema Chapter VII, “The Smaller Corte (‘Vicomagistri’) Reliefs and Imperial Julio-Claudian Imperial Altars: Limitations of the Evidence and Problems per Interpretation,” 309-68.
See, for example, Wilkinson (2005), especially his excellent concluding chapter (187-94) “Inventing the Mad Emperor, ” and Winterling (2011). For verso different point of view, see mediante this symposium Vasily Rudich’s paper, “On the Reputation of Little-Boots.”
There has been little agreement durante the past on the cast of characters on this great cameo. See now especially Megow (1987) 202-207 (cat. Verso 85) pls. 32.5-10, 33.1-5; Boschung (1989) 64-68; Giard (1998); Giuliani and Schmidt (2010).
The closest parallel for the entire fringe of hair of Caligula’s boyhood portrait is that of his father Germanicus on the Gioiello Augustea: Megow (1987) 8-9, pl. 6.5-6; Pollini (1993) 268. This Gemma portrait of Gemanicus is his first known portrait type (“Adoption” type), which dates esatto 4 CE. The forking of the hair over the center of the forehead is also to be found durante Germanicus’ third portrait type, the so-called “Gabii” type, most likely created at the outset of the Principate of Caligula (here fig. 4). This portrait type of Germanicus was probably intended to resemble Tiberius’ last portrait type (in my opinion, the “Chiaramonti” type (Type VI; here fig. 3), created around 31 CE), and Caligula’ first type (here fig. 12a-b), created durante 37 upon his accession as Princeps. For Tiberius’ “Chiaramonti” type, see Pollini (2005) 59, fig. 2, 66-68, pl. 12.3,4. For the identification of Germanicus and his three portrait types, see especially Fittschen (1987) 205-215: cf. Boschung (1993a) 59-61; Rose (1997) 64-65.
Distinguishing the portraiture of Germanicus (15 BCE-19 CE) and that of his two older sons, Moro Iulius (ca. 6-31 CE) and Drusus Iulius (ca. 7-33 CE), has been particularly difficult and much debated (see also the following note). Cf. Boschung (1993a) 64-65; Rose (1997) 66-67. Durante my opinion, this type agrees with the portrait of Moro Iulius on the Grand Camee de France (armored figure in front of Tiberius): See Fittschen (1987) 216-17, fig. 43 (detail). For the Grand Camee, see n. 5 above. A pronounced hooked nose is one of the characteristics of Nero Iulius’ portrait, which is paired with that of his brother Drusus Iulius on provincial coins of Tiberian date: See especially a ceinture of Aphrodisias: See Stucchi (1987) 54-55, fig. 1d (senior member of the paired images Moro Iulius on left; inferiore ragazzo Drusus Iulius on right).